By George H. Daniels
During this first attempt to outline an American medical neighborhood, initially released in 1968, George Daniels has selected for certain examine the fifty six scientists so much released within the sixteen clinical journals pointed out as “national” throughout the interval 1815 to 1845. In this reprint version, with a brand new preface and creation, Daniels exhibits how American scientists emerged from a disorganized crew of amateurs right into a specialist physique sharing a typical orientation and customary ambitions.
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Thomas Bender did criticize me for considering the scientists in my study as "professionals because they were employed as college teachers" suggesting that "he forgets that the college was not a university or even the germ from which the university later grew" As much as I admire Professor Bender's work, and actually agree with most of his comments in that article, I do not think that this particular criticism is to the point: employment in a scientific capacity was cited as only one of the defining characteristics of a professional.
Stephen G. Brush, "The Rise of Astronomy in America," American Studies 20 (1979), p. 43. 8. James R. Fleming, Meteorology in America, 18001870 (Baltimore, 1990). 9. Sally G. Kohlstedt, The Formation of the American Scientific Community: The American Association for the Advancement of Science, 18481860 (Urbana, 1972). 10. Joel J. Orosz, Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 17401870 (Tuscaloosa, 1990). Page xviii 11. Charlotte M. Porter, The Eagle's Nest: Natural History and American Ideas, 18121842 (Tuscaloosa, 1986).
The establishment of a scientific tradition requires more than the production of able individual scientists. It needs a group of devotees working in association, being able to recruit others to their cause, and attracting financial support. As Cohen saw it, the failure of American science appeared to have little or nothing to do with philosophies of science; it was due simply to a kind of institutional weakness that made Americans come late in achieving the conditions under which a true scientific tradition could be established at all.