Alexander A Friedmann: The Man who Made the Universe Expand by Eduard A. Tropp, Viktor Ya. Frenkel, Artur D. Chernin,

By Eduard A. Tropp, Viktor Ya. Frenkel, Artur D. Chernin, Alexander Dron, Michael Burov

Our universe should be defined mathematically by means of an easy version built in 1922 at Petrograd (St. Petersburg) through Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925). with no the advantage of observational proof, Friedmann anticipated that the entire universe could extend and evolve with time. This brilliant prediction was once proven seven years later via Edwin Hubble. Its originator, regrettably did not reside to delight in this triumph. This shiny biography of an exceptional scientist units his lifestyles and paintings opposed to a large backdrop of the historical past of cosmological reviews and its significant gamers, resembling Einstein and others. The publication is a window on Friedmann's institution and collage years, army carrier, and educating and examine in the course of a seminal interval of Soviet historical past. The authors comprise detailed archival fabric, comparable to Friedmann's letters from the Russian entrance, in addition to modern documents and memories of associates. there's a precise therapy of his paintings in theoretical cosmology (1922-1924), set within the context of the association of Soviet technology on the time.

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It often turned out that the beginning of the reference was in the file of one of them, and the continuation in the other files. References and recommendations had the same format. Here is an example of such a recommendation addressed to the superintendent, which concerns the hero of the book: I have the honor to apply to Your Excellency in compliance with Art. 427, Sec. IV, Item 4 of The University Charter of 1884 concerning the retaining at St. Petersburg University, in the department of mathematics, of Alexander Alexan8 It is to be noted that for some reason all the above-mentioned contributions by Friedmann, including the article on Halley's comet, are signed with initials (as are the reviews in The Russian School); in this case the initials "L.

21. The publishing committee (PC), mentioned in this letter, deserves a little more detailed treatment. Friedmann's active involvement in its work is mentioned by A. F. Gavrilov. The committee's activity was regulated 5 6 The simplest case of such an equation has the form f(x) + f(y) =f{x + y); it has the solution/(JC) = Ax, where A is a constant. The Ehrenfests were living in the little village of Kannuka located on the seashore between Ust-Narva and Sillamaa. " The choice of lectures, negotiations with professors, choosing compilers of lecture courses, and business contacts with copyists and the publishers were taken care of by the bureau of the PC, which consisted of five persons, including the chairman, secretary and treasurer.

St. Petersburg, August 18, 1908. Dear Pavel Sigizmundovich [Ehrenfest], This letter will be brought to you by Tamarkin. When he came I learned from him that thanks to the publishing committee I turned out to be a real swine and dishonest person, not having given you the money. For God's sake, forgive me for this oversight. I would, of course, have apologized to you earlier, if only I had known that the debt had not been paid to you . . I would come to see you with pleasure, 6 but I have no spare money at all and although, nominally, I will have a large sum of money this week, actually, it will not belong to me, and the trip to you will cost about ten rubles.

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