By Andrea Megela Simmons (auth.), Andrea Megela Simmons, Richard R. Fay, Arthur N. Popper (eds.)
In order to speak, animals ship and obtain indications which are topic to their specific anatomical, mental, and environmental constraints. This SHAR quantity discusses either the construction and belief of acoustic signs. Chapters deal with the data that animals converse, how the communique is constructed and discovered, and the way communique structures have tailored and advanced inside species. The booklet will provide examples from various species.
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This e-book is a set of invited chapters on multimedia communications contributed by means of specialists within the box. We use the time period multimedia communications to surround the supply of a number of media content material akin to textual content, photos, voice, video, nonetheless photos, and audio over communications networks to clients.
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Extra resources for Acoustic Communication
Given a constant depth and no temperature gradient, the wavelength of the cutoff frequency was predicted to lie between two and four times the depth of the water as predicted for soft and rigid bottoms, respectively. 3. Geometrical Spreading It has been proposed that the propagation of the sound wave in shallow water might be best modeled as cylindrical spreading because the air–water interface and the bottom act as boundaries that limit sound radiation (Urick 1983). 2). Banner (1970) used pressure-sensitive hydrophones to map the sound ﬁeld of pulsed and continuous noise signals in a very shallow (20–60 cm) bay with a ﬂat, sand-mud bottom.
In shallow water, where a sound wave will interact with the surface and bottom multiple times, 2. Physical Acoustics of Underwater Sound Communication 29 reﬂection has an especially important inﬂuence on frequency-dependent propagation. Reﬂected waves create even more complicated sound ﬁelds, depending on the relative texture of the surface that is contacted and the time required for the reﬂected wave to decay as it moves away from the obstacle’s surface. For example, the sound reﬂected off the surface can combine with sound from the direct path to form an interference pattern representing the cancellation and summation of the two waves.
Received Level, Detection, and Recognition Effective communication depends on detection and recognition of the acoustic event. , received level or RL) be above both the local ambient noise level and the receiver’s auditory sensitivity in the signal’s frequency band. In simple cases, when the sum of transmission loss (TL) and local ambient noise is greater than the source level (SL), the detection threshold is greater than the sound’s received level and no detection occurs (see Eq. 6). Detection alone does not assure effective decoding or recognition of the signal.