By Andrew Butterfield, Gerard Ekembe Ngondi, Anne Kerr

Formerly named *A Dictionary of Computing*, this bestselling dictionary has been renamed *A Dictionary of desktop Science*, and completely revised by way of a group of machine experts, making it the main up to date and authoritative consultant to computing to be had. Containing over 6,500 entries and with multiplied insurance of multimedia, computing device purposes, networking, and private machine technology, it's a finished reference paintings encompassing all features of the topic and is as important for domestic and workplace clients because it is integral for college students of desktop technological know-how.

Terms are outlined in a jargon-free and concise demeanour with invaluable examples the place proper. The dictionary comprises nearly one hundred fifty new entries together with **cloud computing**, **cross-site scripting**, **iPad**, **semantic attack**, **smartphone**, and **virtual studying environment**. urged net hyperlinks for plenty of entries, available through the *Dictionary of computing device Science* better half site, supply beneficial additional details and the appendices contain worthwhile assets comparable to primary domains, dossier extensions, and the Greek alphabet.

This dictionary is appropriate for somebody who makes use of desktops, and is perfect for college kids of computing device technology and the similar fields of IT, maths, physics, media communications, digital engineering, and average sciences.

**Read Online or Download A Dictionary of Computer Science PDF**

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Formerly named A Dictionary of Computing, this bestselling dictionary has been renamed A Dictionary of machine technology, and completely revised by means of a staff of machine experts, making it the main updated and authoritative advisor to computing to be had. Containing over 6,500 entries and with elevated assurance of multimedia, computing device functions, networking, and private laptop technology, it's a complete reference paintings encompassing all features of the topic and is as helpful for domestic and place of work clients because it is fundamental for college kids of machine technological know-how.

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**Additional resources for A Dictionary of Computer Science**

**Example text**

Knuth–Bendix algorithm Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm Kolmogorov complexity Königsberg bridges problem Kraft’s inequality kriging Kronrod’s algorithm Kruskal’s algorithm label lambda calculus lambda expression lambda notation Lambert’s law LAMP LAN landscape language language concatenation language construct LAP Laplacian operator laptop computer large-scale integration laser laserdisk laser printer last in first out latch latch-up latency LaTeX Latin alphabet lattice layer lazy evaluation LBA LCA LCC LCD LCM LCSAJ LDAP LDU decomposition leader leading leading edge leadless chip carrier leaf leaf node learning leased line least common multiple least fixed point least privilege least significant character least squares, method of least squares approximation least upper bound LED display Lee distance left-linear grammar left shift left subtree left-to-right precedence legacy applications legacy networks legged robots Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Lempel–Ziv compaction Lempel–Ziv–Welch compaction length length-increasing grammar Lenovo Group Ltd LEO letter letter distribution letter-equivalent languages level leverage point LEX lexical analyser lexicographic order lexicographic sort LF Liang–Barsky clipping library life cycle LIFO light-emitting diode lighting model light intensity Lightning light pen Lightweight Directory Access Protocol likelihood limited license Linda Lindenmeyer system linear algebraic equations linear array linear-bounded automaton linear channel linear codes linear grammar linear independence linear list linear logic linearly dependent linear multistep methods linear predictor linear programming linear recurrence linear regression model linear structure line feed line finder line printer line protocol line switching link link access procedure linkage linkage editor LinkedIn link editor linked list link encryption link layer link library link loader link testing Linux liquid-crystal display Lisp list list box listing list insertion sort list processing list sorting list structure literal literate programming little-endian liveness LL parsing loader local local area network local bus local bus architecture local device local discretization error local-echo mode local error local illumination localization local loop local optimization location location operator locator lock lockout locks and keys lofting logarithmic search algorithm log file logic logical logical cohesion logical connective logical encoding logical expression logical formulas logical input device logical operator logical record logical schema logical shift logical type logical value logic analyser logic bomb logic card logic cell array logic circuit logic design logic device logic diagram logic element logic family logic function logic gate logic instruction logic languages logic level logic operation logic operator logic probe logic programming languages logic state logic symbols login logistic function logit Logo logoff logon logout long filename longitudinal redundancy check lookahead lookahead unit lookup table loop loop invariant lossless coding lossless compression lossy coding lossy compression Lotus 1–2–3 lower bound low-level language low-level scheduler low-pass filter lpm LPT port LQ LRC LRM LR parsing LSD LSI L-system LU decomposition luminance lurker Lycos LZW M Mac MAC MAC-48 MAC address Mach bands machine machine address machine code machine equivalence machine-independent machine intelligence machine language machine learning machine simulation machine translation machine word Macintosh MAC layer MACLisp macro macroassembler macrogenerator macroinstruction macroprocessor macro virus magnetic bubble memory magnetic card magnetic cell magnetic disk magnetic drum magnetic encoding magnetic head magnetic-ink character recognition magnetic media magnetic stripe magnetic tape magnetic tape cartridge magnetic tape unit magnetographic printer magneto-optic storage magnetostrictive tablet mag tape mail mailbox mailmerge mailshot mail user agent mainframe main memory main program main store maintenance majority element make malfunction malware MAN managed data network service managed device management information system manager Manchester Mark I mandatory access control MANET man-machine interface Mann Whitney U-test mantissa many-sorted algebra many-sorted predicate calculus many-sorted signature map MAP MAPI map method mapping marching cubes marching tetrahedra marginal check mark marker Markov chain Markov source mark reading mark-space ratio mark-up language marriage problem masking mask-programmable device masquerade massively parallel mass storage master master file mastering master record master–slave flip-flop master–slave system master tape matching mathematical programming matrix matrix inversion matrix multiplication matrix norm matrix printer matrix-updating methods maximize maximum-length sequence maximum likelihood, method of maximum-likelihood decoding max sort maxterm MB MBONE Mbps Mbyte MCA MCAV MCLs MCLV MCSs MDNS MDR Mealy machine mean mean deviation means/ends analysis measure measurement of appearance measures of location measures of variation mebi- mechanical verifier mechatronics Media Access Control address median medium meet operator mega- Megastream member member disk memory memory card memory compaction memory cycle memory data register memory dump memory element memory fill memory guard memory hierarchy memory management memory map memory mapping memory protection memory reference instruction memory-resident program memory stick memory-to-memory instruction menu menu bar menu bypass menu-driven program Mercurial mergeable heap merge exchange sort merge sort merging mesh mesh interconnection message message passing message queueing message switching message switching network meta-assembler metaballs metafile METAFONT metalanguage meta tag methodology methods metric metropolitan area network Mflops MFM M2FM MICR micro microblog microcircuit microcode microcomputer microcontroller microfiche microinstruction micropipeline microprocessor microprogramming microprogram sequencer microprogram store microrelief microsequence Microsoft middleware MIDI midi-tower midpoint rule migration path Millennium bug milli- Milnet MIMD processor MIME min minicomputer mini DIN connector minimal algebra minimal machine minimax minimax procedure minimization minimization operator minimize minimum-access code minimum-cost spanning tree minimum-error decoding Minitel minterm mipmap mips Miranda mirror disk mirroring mirror set mirror site MIS MISD processor missing observations mixed alphabet mixed-base system mixed cipher mixed logic mixed-radix system ML MMI MNP M-O MOB Mobile Code Languages mobile computing mobile robotics MOD modal dialogue modal logic mode model model-based reasoning model-based specification model checking modeless dialogue modelling modelling clip model numbers modem moderator modifier bits mod-n counter Modula Modula 2 modular arithmetic modular counter modular programming modulation modulator module module coding review module design review module invariant module specification module testing modulo-n check modulo operation MOHLL monadic monadic operation monalphabetic Mondex monic polynomial monitor monochrome display monoid monomode monomorphism monostable monotonic Monte Carlo methods MOO Moore machine Moore’s Law morphing morphism Mosaic MOSFET MOS integrated circuit MOS transistor most significant character motherboard moth-eye motion blur motion prediction Motorola Mount Rainier specifications mouse movement file moving-average methods MP3 MPEG MPP MSD MS-DOS m-sequence MSI MSR MS Windows MTA MTBF MTBI MTS MTTR MTU MUA mu-law encoding multiaccess system multiaddress Multibus multicasting multicore cable multi-core processor MULTICS multidimensional array multidimensional spreadsheet multidrop line multifunction device multigrid methods multilevel memory multilevel security multilinked multimedia multimedia mail multimode multimode counter multipart stationery multiple-address machine multiple assignment multiple chain multiple inheritance multiple instruction, multiple data multiple-master font multiple precision multiple-range tests multiple regression model multiple-valued logic multiplexed bus multiplexer multiplexer channel multiplexing multiplier multiply connected multipoint connection multipoint line multiport memory multiprecision multiprocessing system multiprocessor multiprogramming system multireader multiresolution image multisession compatible multiset multitape Turing machine multitasking multithreading multitouch multiunit processor multiuser system multivalued logic multivariate analysis multivibrator multiway search tree Munsell colour model mu operator mutual exclusion Myhill equivalence MySpace mySQL nagware naive physics NAK name name lookup nameset namespace NAND gate NAND operation nano- nanostore narrow narrowband NAS Nassi–Shneiderman chart NAT National Information Infrastructure native code native software natural binary-coded decimal natural-language processing natural-language understanding natural number NBCD NCP NCR NDC NEC Corporation negation negation as failure negative acknowledgment negative logic negator negentropy neighbour nerd Nerode equivalence nested blocks nesting nesting store Net netgod netiquette Netnews netpolice Netscape Navigator Netware network network address translation network administrator network architecture network-attached storage network delay Network File System network front end network interconnection network layer network management network share network topology network virtual terminal neural computer neural network neuron newsgroup newsreader Newton–Cotes rules Newton’s method NFS nibble Nigerian fraud nine’s complement N-ISDN NLP NLQ NMOS no-address instruction node Noetherian noise noise immunity noiseless coding noise margin noise sequence noise source noisy mode nonbinary logic nondestructive read nondeterminism nonequivalence gate nonequivalence operation nonerasable programmable device nonfunctional requirements nonhierarchical cluster analysis nonimpact printer nonlinear equations nonlinear regression model nonlocal entity nonmemory reference instruction nonmonotonic reasoning nonparametric techniques nonpreemptive allocation nonprocedural language nonreturn to zero nonsingular matrix nonstop processing nonterminal nonterminal node nonvolatile memory non von Neumann architecture no-op instruction NOR gate norm normal distribution normal forms normalization normalized coordinates normal plots normal subgroup NOR operation NOS NoSQL notch filter notebook not-equivalence gate NOT gate NOT operation Novell Inc.

Signalling DCT DCVS DDC DDCMP DDE DDL DDoS DDP DDS DEA deadlock deadly embrace debit/credit benchmark debouncing de Bruijn diagram debugging debug tool DEC decade counter decal de Casteljau algorithm decidable problem decidable set decision gate decision problem decision procedure decision support system decision surface decision table decision tree declaration declarative languages DECnet decoder decoder/demultiplexer decoder/driver decoder error decoding decollator decompiler decomposition decompression deconvolution decryption dedicated dedicated mode deduction deductive apparatus Deep Blue deep case deep structure Deep Thought default default rules defect skipping deferral deferred addressing deferred approach to the limit definition deflation defrag defragmentation degree degree of precision degrees of freedom Dekker’s algorithm Delaunay triangulation delay differential equations delayed branch delay line delay-power product delete delimiter Dell delta PCM demand paging demand reading, writing Demilitarized Zone demodulator demon de Morgan’s laws demultiplexer dendrogram denial denial of service denotational semantics density denumerable set deposit depth depth-balanced depth buffer depth cueing depth-first search deque derivation sequence derivation tree derivative DES descendant descriptor design database design pattern design review desktop desktop publishing destructive read determinant deterministic deterministic language deterministic Turing machine DEUCE developer development life cycle device device coordinates device driver DFD D flip-flop DFT DHCP dhrystone benchmark DHTML diagnostic routine diagonalization diagonal matrix diagrammatic technique dialler dialogue box dialogue management dictionary diff Difference Engine difference equations differential backup differential dump differential equations differential PCM diffuse reflection diffusion address digital digital audio tape digital camera digital cassette digital certificate digital circuit digital computer digital copier digital data storage digital data transmission digital design digital design language Digital Equipment Corporation digital filtering digital halftone digital image digital logic digital signal digital signal processing digital signature digital sorting digital system digital-to-analogue converter digital versatile disk digital video digital video disk digital video interactive digital video interface digitization digitizer digraph Dijkstra, Edsger Dijkstra’s algorithm DIL DIL switch dimension diminished radix complement diminishing increment sort DIMM DIN connector dingbat diode diode-transistor logic DIP direct-access storage device direct addressing direct-coupled machines direct data entry direct digital control directed graph directed set directed tree direction keys directive direct memory access directory directory services directory tree direct product DirectX Dirichlet region disable disarm disassembler disc disconnected graph discourse understanding discrete and continuous systems discrete channel discrete component discrete cosine transform discrete event simulation discrete Fourier transform discrete mathematics discrete process control discrete signal discrete source discrete structure discrete system discretionary access control discretization discretization error discriminant analysis disjoint disjunction disjunctive normal form disk disk array disk cache disk cartridge disk drive diskette disk format disk pack disk stack disk striping disk-to-plate disk unit dispatcher dispersion displacement mapping display Display Port display processor Distiller distributed array processor distributed artificial intelligence distributed computing environment Distributed Concurrent Versions System distributed database distributed denial of service distributed file system distributed problem solving distributed processing distributed queue dual bus distributed system distribution distribution counting sort distributive lattice distributive laws dithered colour dithering dither noise diverse programming divide and conquer sorting divided difference divider DLL DMA DME DML DMZ DNS DNS server docking station document documentation document image processing Document Object Model document processing document reader document scanner document sorter document type definition do loop DOL system DOM domain domain knowledge domain modelling domain name server domain name system domain theory dominator dongle do-nothing instruction don’t care dope vector DOS DOS box dot com dot diffusion dot matrix printer double buffering double click double complement double-density recording double-length arithmetic double negation double precision doubly linked list do-while loop down downline download down operation downsizing downtime DP DPCM dpi DQDB drag drag and drop DRAM draughts-playing programs DRAW DRCS DRDW drive driver drop-down menu drop-in drop-on-demand inkjet printer drop-out drum plotter drum printer drum scanner dry run DSL DSM DSP DSPACE DSS DTD DTE DTIME DTL DTP D-type flip-flop dual dual attach dual core dual in-line package duality dual port memory dual processor dummy instruction dump dump check dump point duplex duty cycle DVD DVI dyadic dyadic operation Dyck language dye-polymer media dynamic dynamic allocation dynamic data structure Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol dynamic HTML dynamic link library dynamic logic dynamic memory dynamic programming dynamic testing dynamic web page EAN EAPROM EAROM Easter egg EBCDIC EBNF e-book e-business ECB ECBS echo echo check echoing echo suppression ECL ECMA International ECMAScript e-commerce edge edge board edge card edge connector edge detector edge-triggered flip-flop EDI EDIFACT edit editor Edmonds’ algorithm EDP EDS EDSAC EDVAC EEPROM EEROM effective address effective computability effective enumeration effective procedure EFT EFTPOS EFTS egoless programming EIA EIDE Eiffel eigenfunctions eigenvalue problems eigenvectors EIR EISA elapsed time e-learning electrographic printer electroluminescent display electromagnetic beam deflection electromagnetic compatibility electronic electronic blackboard electronic data interchange electronic data processing electronic filing electronic funds transfer system electronic graffiti electronic learning electronic mail electronic organizer electronic point-of-sale system electronic publishing electronic signature electrophotographic printer electrosensitive printer electrostatic beam deflection electrostatic printer electrostatic storage device electrothermal printer element Ellison, Larry ELSE rule EMACS email EMAS embedded computer embedded servo embedding EMC EMI emittance texture emitter-coupled logic e-money emoticon empty list empty medium empty set empty string EMS memory emulation emulator enable enable pulse encapsulated PostScript encapsulation encoder encoding encryption end-around-carry end-around shift endomorphism endorder traversal end-to-end control end-to-end encryption energizer engine engineering of computer-based systems enhanced small-device interface ENIAC enterprise modelling enterprise resource planning enterprise server entity entity-relationship-attribute diagram, model entropy entry point entry time enumeration enumeration type environment environment mapping EOB EOD EOF EOJ EOR EOT EOT marker epimorphism epistemology EPLD epoch EPOS EPPT EPROM EPS EPSF EPSI equation equational logic equational specification equational term rewriting system equipotent equivalence equivalence class equivalence gate equivalence relation equivalent binary digits equivalent trees ERA diagram ERA model erasable programmable logic device erasable PROM erase head eraser erasure channel ergodic source ergonomics Erlang ERP error error analysis error bound error burst error control error-correcting code error correction error-detecting code error detection error diagnostics error estimate error handling error-indicating recording error management error message error propagation error rate error recovery error routine error seeding escape character escape sequence escrow ESD ESDI ESF coating ESPRIT ESSI ETB Ether Ethernet Ethernet card e-ticket ETX/ACK Euclidean norm Euclid’s algorithm Eudora EUI-48 EUI-64 Euler cycle Euler operators Euler’s formula Euler’s method EUREKA European Article Numbering code evaluation function even parity event-driven event input event tree analysis evolutionary programming exa- exbi- Excel exception exception handling excess-3 code excess factor excess-n notation exchangeable disk store exchange selection exclusive-NOR gate exclusive-OR gate exclusive-OR operation executables execute execute phase execute step execution states execution time executive program executive state exerciser exhaustive search existential quantifier exit point EXNOR gate EXOR gate expanded memory expansion expansion card expansion slot expectation experimental design expert systems explicit address exploratory data analysis exponent exponentially bounded algorithm exponential waveform exponentiation export list exposed terminal problem ExpressCard expression expression of requirements extended addressing extended ASCII extended BNF extended memory extended precision extensibility extensible addressing extensible language extensible stylesheet language extension extension field Exterior Gateway Protocol external device external fragmentation external interrupt external node external path length external schema external sorting external storage extranet extrapolation extrapolation method extrinsic semiconductor Facebook facet facial animation facilities management facsimile factorable code factor analysis factorial designs FADEC Fagan inspection fail-safe fail-soft failure failure modes failure rate failure recovery fairness fair surface design fallback false position method fan-in Fano coding Fano decoding fan-out FAQ farm FAST Fast Ethernet fast Fourier transform FAT father file fault fault detection fault diagnosis fault-tolerant system fault tree analysis fax fax card FCC FDDI F distribution FDM feasibility study feature detection feature modelling feed feedback feedback queue feedback register feed-forward register Feistel cipher Ferranti Mark I ferrite ferroelectric display FET fetch-execute cycle fetch protect FF FFT Fibre Channel fibre distributed data interface fibre optics Fibonacci search Fibonacci series fiche field field bus field-effect transistor field-programmable devices FIFO fifth generation file file activity file allocation table file descriptor file directory file editing file extension file format file integrity file locking file maintenance file management file management system file manager file mark file name file organization file protection file recovery file server file system file transfer file transfer protocol file updating fill area primitive fill character filling film scanner filter filtering filtering bridge find find and change finite automaton finite-difference method finite-element analysis finite-element method finite field finite-length arithmetic finite-model theory finite sequence finite set finite-state automaton FIPS Fire codes Firefox firewall FireWire firing rule firmware FIRST first-class type first fit first generation first in first out first normal form first-order logic first-order term fixed-base system fixed disk drive fixed head fixed-length arithmetic fixed-length code fixed point fixed-point notation fixed-point theorem fixed-radix system fixed space fixed word length computer flag flame flash memory flat addressing flatbed plotter flatbed scanner flat file model flat pack flat-panel display flat screen flexible array flexible disk cartridge flexible manufacturing system flexible PCB flicker flip-flop float floating-point notation floating-point operation flood-fill floor flop floppy disk floppy-disk drive flops floptical disk flowchart flow control Floyd method fluid logic Flynn’s classification FM FMECA FMS FMV folding font font cartridge footprint foreground processing foreign key forest for loop form formal language formal language theory formal logic formal method formal parameter formal specification formal system formal verification formant format format string bug formatter form factor form feed form letter form overlay form stop Forth Fortran forum forward bias forward chaining forward error correction forward error recovery forward pruning Fourier analysis Fourier descriptors Fourier series Fourier transform four Russians algorithm fourth generation fourth-generation language FP FPA FPGA FPLA FQDN fractal fractal image compression fraction fractional-level zooming fractional part fractional replication fragmentation frame frame buffer frame grabber frameless rendering frame relay frames framework Framework Programme Framework Programmes, I–VII FranzLisp Fredholm integral equation freedom of information free list free monoid free occurrence free semigroup Free Software Foundation free-space list free text retrieval free variable freeware freeze-frame frequency frequency distribution frequency divider frequency division multiplexing frequency domain frequency function frequency modulation frequency shift keying Fresnel factor friction drive front end front-end processor FSA FSF FSK FTAM FTFL code FTP FTVL code Fujitsu full adder full backup full custom full duplex full-motion video full subtractor full text retrieval full tree function functional cohesion functional dependency functional design functional languages functional partitioning functional specification functional testing functional unit function key function point analysis functor fuser fusible link fuzzy control fuzzy logic FYI G Galerkin’s method gallium arsenide devices Galois field games console games port game theory game tree Gane–Sarson Gantt chart gap theorem garbage garbage collection garbage in garbage out gate gate array Gates, Bill gateway gather write Gaussian distribution Gaussian elimination Gaussian noise Gaussian quadrature GB Gbps GBS method Gbyte GCD GCR GDI geek gender bender generalized additive models generalized Church–Turing thesis generalized linear model generalized sequential machine general-purpose computer general-purpose interface bus general recursive function generating polynomial generations generative grammar generator generator matrix generic generic compaction generics genetic algorithm genetic programming geodesic geodesic curves geographic information system geometric modeller gesture Gflops gibi- GIF giga- Gigabit Ethernet GIGO Gilbert–Varshamov bound GINO–F GIS Git GKS glass-box testing glass teletype glitch global global discretization error global illumination global optimization glossy reflection glyph GNU goal-directed processing Gödel numbering Gödel’s incompleteness theorems Golay codes golden section search gold master Good–de Bruijn diagram goodness-of-fit test Google gopher Gopher Goppa codes GOTO statement Gouraud shading GP GPIB GPU graceful degradation graded index fibre Gragg’s extrapolation method grammar grandfather file granularity graph graphical device interface graphical kernel system graphical user interface graphic characters graphics graphics adapter graphics image format graphics mode graphics primitive graphics processing unit graphics program graphics tablet graphics workstation graph plotter graph rewrite system gravity field Gray code greatest common divisor greatest lower bound greedy method greeking Green Book Greibach normal form grey importer grey-level array grey-level image greyscale grid Grosch’s law ground term group group code group code recording group graph group mark groupware Grzegorczyk hierarchy gsm mapping guest GUI gulp H2020 hacker hacking Hadamard codes Hadamard matrices half-adder half duplex half-height factor halfplane half subtractor halfsurface halftone half word halt halting problem Hamiltonian cycle Hamming bound Hamming codes Hamming distance Hamming metric Hamming radius Hamming space Hamming sphere Hamming weight hand-held computer handle handshake hands off hands on hang-up Hanoi haptics hard copy hard disk hard return hard-sectored disk hardware hardware character generation hardware circuitry hardware description hardware maintenance hardware reliability hardware security hardwired Harvard Mark I hash function hashing hashing algorithm hash P complete hash search hash table hash total hash value Haskell Hatley–Pirbhai Hayes command set Hayes-compatible hazard hazard and operability study HAZOP HCI HD HDD HD DVD HDLC HDTV head head crash headend header head-mounted display head-per-track drive heap heapsort height height-balanced helical scan help desk help system hemi cube He model Hermite interpolation hertz heuristic heuristic search Hewlett-Packard hex hexadecimal notation hex pad hibernate hidden file hidden-line/hidden-surface removal hidden-line removal hidden-surface removal hidden terminal problem hierarchical addressing hierarchical B-splines hierarchical class structure hierarchical cluster analysis hierarchical communication system hierarchical database system hierarchical data model hierarchical encoding hierarchical memory structure hierarchical radiosity hierarchy hierarchy of functions High-Definition DVD higher-order term high-level design high-level language high-level scheduler highlight highlighting high-order language high-pass filter High Performance File System High Sierra standard highway hill climbing hi res histogram hit rate HLHSR HLS colour model HMD HMI Hoare logic HOL hold time Hollerith, Herman Hollerith code holographic memory holographic scanner home key home page homogeneous coordinates homomorphic image homomorphism HOOD hook into hop HOPE Horizon 2020 horizon effect horizontal check horizontal microinstruction horizontal recording Horn clause Horner’s method host computer hosting host language hot key hot link hotspot hot swapping housekeeping HPF HPFS HP-PA HSI HSV colour model HTML HTTP hub hub polling hue Huffman encoding human-computer interface hybrid computer hybrid integrated circuit hypercube hyperedge hypergraph hyperlink hypermedia hypertext hypertext mark-up language hypertext transfer protocol hypervisor IA5 IAB IANA IAP IAS IAS computer IBG IBM IBM-compatible IBM system 360 IC I2C ICANN ICC ICL icon ICON ICR ICT IDE IDEF idempotent law identification identifier identity burst identity element identity function identity matrix idle time IDMS IDP IEC IEEE IEEE1394 IESG IETF if and only if statement IFE iff IFIP IFS if then else statement IGBT IGES ignore character IH iLink ill-conditioned illegal character illegal instruction ILLIAC IV illumination IMA iMac image image capture image compression image display image file format image grabber image management system image map image processing image tearing image understanding image warping IMAP immediate access store immediate addressing immunization impact printer imperative languages implementation implicant implicit surface implied addressing import list imprecision impulse noise IMS inactive incidence matrix inclusive-OR gate inclusive-OR operation incomplete knowledge-based system incompleteness theorems inconsistent increment incremental backup incremental compaction incremental compiler incremental dump incremental learning indegree indeterminate system index indexed addressing indexed file indexed sequential file index register indicator indirect addressing individual attributes induction industrial robotics Industry Standard Architecture inequality inference inference engine infinite resolution infix notation influence informatics information information and communications technology information destination information engineering information hiding information leak information management system information processing information retrieval information science information sciences information source information storage and retrieval information structure information superhighway information system information systems information technology information theory INFORMIX infrared interface infrastructure-based architecture INGRES inherent addressing inherently ambiguous language inheritance inhibit initial algebra initialization initial-value problem injection inkjet printer in-line function inner code inoculation inorder traversal input input area input device input-limited process input/output insert install instance instantaneously decodable instantiation instruction instruction counter instruction cycle instruction format instruction register instruction repertoire instruction sequencing instruction set instruction stream instrument integer integer programming integer type integral domain integral equation integrated circuit integrated data processing integrated device electronics integrated modular avionics integrated office system integrated services digital network integrated systems factory integration testing integrity integrity level integro-differential equation Intel Intel High Definition Audio Intellect intellectual property intelligent front end intelligent network intelligent terminal intensity interaction interactive interactive development environment interactive graphics interblock gap interface interior node interior path length interlacing interlock intermediate code intermediate storage internal fragmentation internal schema internal sorting Internet Internet access provider Internet address The Anatomy of an Internet Address Internet Architecture Board Internet café Internet Engineering Steering Group Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Explorer Internet Message Access Protocol internet protocol Internet Protocol Security Internet service provider Internet Society internetworking interoperability interpolation interpretation interpreter interpretive language interprocess communication interquartile range interrogation interrupt interrupt-driven interrupt handler interrupt I/O interrupt mask interrupt priority interrupt service routine interrupt vector intersection intersegment linking interval analysis interval timer intranet intrinsic semiconductor invariant inverse inverse homomorphic image inverse matrix inverse power method inverse video inverted file inverter invertible matrix involution operation I/O I/O buffering I/O bus I/O channel I/O control I/O device I/O file I/O instruction I/O-limited I/O mapping ionographic printer IOP I/O port I/O processor I/O register iOS I/O supervisor I/O switching IP iPad IP address IPC IP core iPhone IPL IPO iPod IPSec IPv4 IPv6 IrDa IRQ irradiance irradiance gradient irrecoverable error irreducible polynomial irreflexive relation irreversible encryption IS ISA ISAM ISDN ISF ISO ISO-7 ISOC isolation isoline isolux curves isomorphism ISO/OSI reference model isosurface ISP ISR IT ITA-5 Itanium iterated function system iterated map iteration iterative deepening iterative improvement iterative methods ITron ITSEC ITU ITU-T jackknife Jackson method JANET Jarrot’s method Java JavaBean Java Development Kit JavaScript JavaServer Pages Java Virtual Machine JCL JDK jewel box JIT compiler jitter JK flip-flop job job-control language job file job mix job monitoring Jobs, Steve job scheduling job step job stream Johnson counter join operator Josephson junction Josephson technology journal tape Jovial joystick JPEG JSD JSP JTMP jukebox jump jump instruction junction justify Just-in-time compiler JVM K KADS Kalman filter Kamarkar’s method Karnaugh map kB Kbps KBS Kbyte K-complexity k-connectivity KDC KDD Kerberos Kermit kernel kernel field kerning key keyboard keyboard encoder key frame keypad keypunch keyring drive key sorting keyword keyword parameter Kildall, Gary kill file kilo- Kilostream Klatt synthesizer Kleene closure Kleene-plus Kleene star Kleene’s theorem k lookahead kludge KMP algorithm knapsack problem knot knowledge knowledge acquisition knowledge base knowledge-based system knowledge discovery in databases knowledge elicitation knowledge engineering knowledge engineering toolkits knowledge representation Knuth, Donald E.

Signalling DCT DCVS DDC DDCMP DDE DDL DDoS DDP DDS DEA deadlock deadly embrace debit/credit benchmark debouncing de Bruijn diagram debugging debug tool DEC decade counter decal de Casteljau algorithm decidable problem decidable set decision gate decision problem decision procedure decision support system decision surface decision table decision tree declaration declarative languages DECnet decoder decoder/demultiplexer decoder/driver decoder error decoding decollator decompiler decomposition decompression deconvolution decryption dedicated dedicated mode deduction deductive apparatus Deep Blue deep case deep structure Deep Thought default default rules defect skipping deferral deferred addressing deferred approach to the limit definition deflation defrag defragmentation degree degree of precision degrees of freedom Dekker’s algorithm Delaunay triangulation delay differential equations delayed branch delay line delay-power product delete delimiter Dell delta PCM demand paging demand reading, writing Demilitarized Zone demodulator demon de Morgan’s laws demultiplexer dendrogram denial denial of service denotational semantics density denumerable set deposit depth depth-balanced depth buffer depth cueing depth-first search deque derivation sequence derivation tree derivative DES descendant descriptor design database design pattern design review desktop desktop publishing destructive read determinant deterministic deterministic language deterministic Turing machine DEUCE developer development life cycle device device coordinates device driver DFD D flip-flop DFT DHCP dhrystone benchmark DHTML diagnostic routine diagonalization diagonal matrix diagrammatic technique dialler dialogue box dialogue management dictionary diff Difference Engine difference equations differential backup differential dump differential equations differential PCM diffuse reflection diffusion address digital digital audio tape digital camera digital cassette digital certificate digital circuit digital computer digital copier digital data storage digital data transmission digital design digital design language Digital Equipment Corporation digital filtering digital halftone digital image digital logic digital signal digital signal processing digital signature digital sorting digital system digital-to-analogue converter digital versatile disk digital video digital video disk digital video interactive digital video interface digitization digitizer digraph Dijkstra, Edsger Dijkstra’s algorithm DIL DIL switch dimension diminished radix complement diminishing increment sort DIMM DIN connector dingbat diode diode-transistor logic DIP direct-access storage device direct addressing direct-coupled machines direct data entry direct digital control directed graph directed set directed tree direction keys directive direct memory access directory directory services directory tree direct product DirectX Dirichlet region disable disarm disassembler disc disconnected graph discourse understanding discrete and continuous systems discrete channel discrete component discrete cosine transform discrete event simulation discrete Fourier transform discrete mathematics discrete process control discrete signal discrete source discrete structure discrete system discretionary access control discretization discretization error discriminant analysis disjoint disjunction disjunctive normal form disk disk array disk cache disk cartridge disk drive diskette disk format disk pack disk stack disk striping disk-to-plate disk unit dispatcher dispersion displacement mapping display Display Port display processor Distiller distributed array processor distributed artificial intelligence distributed computing environment Distributed Concurrent Versions System distributed database distributed denial of service distributed file system distributed problem solving distributed processing distributed queue dual bus distributed system distribution distribution counting sort distributive lattice distributive laws dithered colour dithering dither noise diverse programming divide and conquer sorting divided difference divider DLL DMA DME DML DMZ DNS DNS server docking station document documentation document image processing Document Object Model document processing document reader document scanner document sorter document type definition do loop DOL system DOM domain domain knowledge domain modelling domain name server domain name system domain theory dominator dongle do-nothing instruction don’t care dope vector DOS DOS box dot com dot diffusion dot matrix printer double buffering double click double complement double-density recording double-length arithmetic double negation double precision doubly linked list do-while loop down downline download down operation downsizing downtime DP DPCM dpi DQDB drag drag and drop DRAM draughts-playing programs DRAW DRCS DRDW drive driver drop-down menu drop-in drop-on-demand inkjet printer drop-out drum plotter drum printer drum scanner dry run DSL DSM DSP DSPACE DSS DTD DTE DTIME DTL DTP D-type flip-flop dual dual attach dual core dual in-line package duality dual port memory dual processor dummy instruction dump dump check dump point duplex duty cycle DVD DVI dyadic dyadic operation Dyck language dye-polymer media dynamic dynamic allocation dynamic data structure Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol dynamic HTML dynamic link library dynamic logic dynamic memory dynamic programming dynamic testing dynamic web page EAN EAPROM EAROM Easter egg EBCDIC EBNF e-book e-business ECB ECBS echo echo check echoing echo suppression ECL ECMA International ECMAScript e-commerce edge edge board edge card edge connector edge detector edge-triggered flip-flop EDI EDIFACT edit editor Edmonds’ algorithm EDP EDS EDSAC EDVAC EEPROM EEROM effective address effective computability effective enumeration effective procedure EFT EFTPOS EFTS egoless programming EIA EIDE Eiffel eigenfunctions eigenvalue problems eigenvectors EIR EISA elapsed time e-learning electrographic printer electroluminescent display electromagnetic beam deflection electromagnetic compatibility electronic electronic blackboard electronic data interchange electronic data processing electronic filing electronic funds transfer system electronic graffiti electronic learning electronic mail electronic organizer electronic point-of-sale system electronic publishing electronic signature electrophotographic printer electrosensitive printer electrostatic beam deflection electrostatic printer electrostatic storage device electrothermal printer element Ellison, Larry ELSE rule EMACS email EMAS embedded computer embedded servo embedding EMC EMI emittance texture emitter-coupled logic e-money emoticon empty list empty medium empty set empty string EMS memory emulation emulator enable enable pulse encapsulated PostScript encapsulation encoder encoding encryption end-around-carry end-around shift endomorphism endorder traversal end-to-end control end-to-end encryption energizer engine engineering of computer-based systems enhanced small-device interface ENIAC enterprise modelling enterprise resource planning enterprise server entity entity-relationship-attribute diagram, model entropy entry point entry time enumeration enumeration type environment environment mapping EOB EOD EOF EOJ EOR EOT EOT marker epimorphism epistemology EPLD epoch EPOS EPPT EPROM EPS EPSF EPSI equation equational logic equational specification equational term rewriting system equipotent equivalence equivalence class equivalence gate equivalence relation equivalent binary digits equivalent trees ERA diagram ERA model erasable programmable logic device erasable PROM erase head eraser erasure channel ergodic source ergonomics Erlang ERP error error analysis error bound error burst error control error-correcting code error correction error-detecting code error detection error diagnostics error estimate error handling error-indicating recording error management error message error propagation error rate error recovery error routine error seeding escape character escape sequence escrow ESD ESDI ESF coating ESPRIT ESSI ETB Ether Ethernet Ethernet card e-ticket ETX/ACK Euclidean norm Euclid’s algorithm Eudora EUI-48 EUI-64 Euler cycle Euler operators Euler’s formula Euler’s method EUREKA European Article Numbering code evaluation function even parity event-driven event input event tree analysis evolutionary programming exa- exbi- Excel exception exception handling excess-3 code excess factor excess-n notation exchangeable disk store exchange selection exclusive-NOR gate exclusive-OR gate exclusive-OR operation executables execute execute phase execute step execution states execution time executive program executive state exerciser exhaustive search existential quantifier exit point EXNOR gate EXOR gate expanded memory expansion expansion card expansion slot expectation experimental design expert systems explicit address exploratory data analysis exponent exponentially bounded algorithm exponential waveform exponentiation export list exposed terminal problem ExpressCard expression expression of requirements extended addressing extended ASCII extended BNF extended memory extended precision extensibility extensible addressing extensible language extensible stylesheet language extension extension field Exterior Gateway Protocol external device external fragmentation external interrupt external node external path length external schema external sorting external storage extranet extrapolation extrapolation method extrinsic semiconductor Facebook facet facial animation facilities management facsimile factorable code factor analysis factorial designs FADEC Fagan inspection fail-safe fail-soft failure failure modes failure rate failure recovery fairness fair surface design fallback false position method fan-in Fano coding Fano decoding fan-out FAQ farm FAST Fast Ethernet fast Fourier transform FAT father file fault fault detection fault diagnosis fault-tolerant system fault tree analysis fax fax card FCC FDDI F distribution FDM feasibility study feature detection feature modelling feed feedback feedback queue feedback register feed-forward register Feistel cipher Ferranti Mark I ferrite ferroelectric display FET fetch-execute cycle fetch protect FF FFT Fibre Channel fibre distributed data interface fibre optics Fibonacci search Fibonacci series fiche field field bus field-effect transistor field-programmable devices FIFO fifth generation file file activity file allocation table file descriptor file directory file editing file extension file format file integrity file locking file maintenance file management file management system file manager file mark file name file organization file protection file recovery file server file system file transfer file transfer protocol file updating fill area primitive fill character filling film scanner filter filtering filtering bridge find find and change finite automaton finite-difference method finite-element analysis finite-element method finite field finite-length arithmetic finite-model theory finite sequence finite set finite-state automaton FIPS Fire codes Firefox firewall FireWire firing rule firmware FIRST first-class type first fit first generation first in first out first normal form first-order logic first-order term fixed-base system fixed disk drive fixed head fixed-length arithmetic fixed-length code fixed point fixed-point notation fixed-point theorem fixed-radix system fixed space fixed word length computer flag flame flash memory flat addressing flatbed plotter flatbed scanner flat file model flat pack flat-panel display flat screen flexible array flexible disk cartridge flexible manufacturing system flexible PCB flicker flip-flop float floating-point notation floating-point operation flood-fill floor flop floppy disk floppy-disk drive flops floptical disk flowchart flow control Floyd method fluid logic Flynn’s classification FM FMECA FMS FMV folding font font cartridge footprint foreground processing foreign key forest for loop form formal language formal language theory formal logic formal method formal parameter formal specification formal system formal verification formant format format string bug formatter form factor form feed form letter form overlay form stop Forth Fortran forum forward bias forward chaining forward error correction forward error recovery forward pruning Fourier analysis Fourier descriptors Fourier series Fourier transform four Russians algorithm fourth generation fourth-generation language FP FPA FPGA FPLA FQDN fractal fractal image compression fraction fractional-level zooming fractional part fractional replication fragmentation frame frame buffer frame grabber frameless rendering frame relay frames framework Framework Programme Framework Programmes, I–VII FranzLisp Fredholm integral equation freedom of information free list free monoid free occurrence free semigroup Free Software Foundation free-space list free text retrieval free variable freeware freeze-frame frequency frequency distribution frequency divider frequency division multiplexing frequency domain frequency function frequency modulation frequency shift keying Fresnel factor friction drive front end front-end processor FSA FSF FSK FTAM FTFL code FTP FTVL code Fujitsu full adder full backup full custom full duplex full-motion video full subtractor full text retrieval full tree function functional cohesion functional dependency functional design functional languages functional partitioning functional specification functional testing functional unit function key function point analysis functor fuser fusible link fuzzy control fuzzy logic FYI G Galerkin’s method gallium arsenide devices Galois field games console games port game theory game tree Gane–Sarson Gantt chart gap theorem garbage garbage collection garbage in garbage out gate gate array Gates, Bill gateway gather write Gaussian distribution Gaussian elimination Gaussian noise Gaussian quadrature GB Gbps GBS method Gbyte GCD GCR GDI geek gender bender generalized additive models generalized Church–Turing thesis generalized linear model generalized sequential machine general-purpose computer general-purpose interface bus general recursive function generating polynomial generations generative grammar generator generator matrix generic generic compaction generics genetic algorithm genetic programming geodesic geodesic curves geographic information system geometric modeller gesture Gflops gibi- GIF giga- Gigabit Ethernet GIGO Gilbert–Varshamov bound GINO–F GIS Git GKS glass-box testing glass teletype glitch global global discretization error global illumination global optimization glossy reflection glyph GNU goal-directed processing Gödel numbering Gödel’s incompleteness theorems Golay codes golden section search gold master Good–de Bruijn diagram goodness-of-fit test Google gopher Gopher Goppa codes GOTO statement Gouraud shading GP GPIB GPU graceful degradation graded index fibre Gragg’s extrapolation method grammar grandfather file granularity graph graphical device interface graphical kernel system graphical user interface graphic characters graphics graphics adapter graphics image format graphics mode graphics primitive graphics processing unit graphics program graphics tablet graphics workstation graph plotter graph rewrite system gravity field Gray code greatest common divisor greatest lower bound greedy method greeking Green Book Greibach normal form grey importer grey-level array grey-level image greyscale grid Grosch’s law ground term group group code group code recording group graph group mark groupware Grzegorczyk hierarchy gsm mapping guest GUI gulp H2020 hacker hacking Hadamard codes Hadamard matrices half-adder half duplex half-height factor halfplane half subtractor halfsurface halftone half word halt halting problem Hamiltonian cycle Hamming bound Hamming codes Hamming distance Hamming metric Hamming radius Hamming space Hamming sphere Hamming weight hand-held computer handle handshake hands off hands on hang-up Hanoi haptics hard copy hard disk hard return hard-sectored disk hardware hardware character generation hardware circuitry hardware description hardware maintenance hardware reliability hardware security hardwired Harvard Mark I hash function hashing hashing algorithm hash P complete hash search hash table hash total hash value Haskell Hatley–Pirbhai Hayes command set Hayes-compatible hazard hazard and operability study HAZOP HCI HD HDD HD DVD HDLC HDTV head head crash headend header head-mounted display head-per-track drive heap heapsort height height-balanced helical scan help desk help system hemi cube He model Hermite interpolation hertz heuristic heuristic search Hewlett-Packard hex hexadecimal notation hex pad hibernate hidden file hidden-line/hidden-surface removal hidden-line removal hidden-surface removal hidden terminal problem hierarchical addressing hierarchical B-splines hierarchical class structure hierarchical cluster analysis hierarchical communication system hierarchical database system hierarchical data model hierarchical encoding hierarchical memory structure hierarchical radiosity hierarchy hierarchy of functions High-Definition DVD higher-order term high-level design high-level language high-level scheduler highlight highlighting high-order language high-pass filter High Performance File System High Sierra standard highway hill climbing hi res histogram hit rate HLHSR HLS colour model HMD HMI Hoare logic HOL hold time Hollerith, Herman Hollerith code holographic memory holographic scanner home key home page homogeneous coordinates homomorphic image homomorphism HOOD hook into hop HOPE Horizon 2020 horizon effect horizontal check horizontal microinstruction horizontal recording Horn clause Horner’s method host computer hosting host language hot key hot link hotspot hot swapping housekeeping HPF HPFS HP-PA HSI HSV colour model HTML HTTP hub hub polling hue Huffman encoding human-computer interface hybrid computer hybrid integrated circuit hypercube hyperedge hypergraph hyperlink hypermedia hypertext hypertext mark-up language hypertext transfer protocol hypervisor IA5 IAB IANA IAP IAS IAS computer IBG IBM IBM-compatible IBM system 360 IC I2C ICANN ICC ICL icon ICON ICR ICT IDE IDEF idempotent law identification identifier identity burst identity element identity function identity matrix idle time IDMS IDP IEC IEEE IEEE1394 IESG IETF if and only if statement IFE iff IFIP IFS if then else statement IGBT IGES ignore character IH iLink ill-conditioned illegal character illegal instruction ILLIAC IV illumination IMA iMac image image capture image compression image display image file format image grabber image management system image map image processing image tearing image understanding image warping IMAP immediate access store immediate addressing immunization impact printer imperative languages implementation implicant implicit surface implied addressing import list imprecision impulse noise IMS inactive incidence matrix inclusive-OR gate inclusive-OR operation incomplete knowledge-based system incompleteness theorems inconsistent increment incremental backup incremental compaction incremental compiler incremental dump incremental learning indegree indeterminate system index indexed addressing indexed file indexed sequential file index register indicator indirect addressing individual attributes induction industrial robotics Industry Standard Architecture inequality inference inference engine infinite resolution infix notation influence informatics information information and communications technology information destination information engineering information hiding information leak information management system information processing information retrieval information science information sciences information source information storage and retrieval information structure information superhighway information system information systems information technology information theory INFORMIX infrared interface infrastructure-based architecture INGRES inherent addressing inherently ambiguous language inheritance inhibit initial algebra initialization initial-value problem injection inkjet printer in-line function inner code inoculation inorder traversal input input area input device input-limited process input/output insert install instance instantaneously decodable instantiation instruction instruction counter instruction cycle instruction format instruction register instruction repertoire instruction sequencing instruction set instruction stream instrument integer integer programming integer type integral domain integral equation integrated circuit integrated data processing integrated device electronics integrated modular avionics integrated office system integrated services digital network integrated systems factory integration testing integrity integrity level integro-differential equation Intel Intel High Definition Audio Intellect intellectual property intelligent front end intelligent network intelligent terminal intensity interaction interactive interactive development environment interactive graphics interblock gap interface interior node interior path length interlacing interlock intermediate code intermediate storage internal fragmentation internal schema internal sorting Internet Internet access provider Internet address The Anatomy of an Internet Address Internet Architecture Board Internet café Internet Engineering Steering Group Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Explorer Internet Message Access Protocol internet protocol Internet Protocol Security Internet service provider Internet Society internetworking interoperability interpolation interpretation interpreter interpretive language interprocess communication interquartile range interrogation interrupt interrupt-driven interrupt handler interrupt I/O interrupt mask interrupt priority interrupt service routine interrupt vector intersection intersegment linking interval analysis interval timer intranet intrinsic semiconductor invariant inverse inverse homomorphic image inverse matrix inverse power method inverse video inverted file inverter invertible matrix involution operation I/O I/O buffering I/O bus I/O channel I/O control I/O device I/O file I/O instruction I/O-limited I/O mapping ionographic printer IOP I/O port I/O processor I/O register iOS I/O supervisor I/O switching IP iPad IP address IPC IP core iPhone IPL IPO iPod IPSec IPv4 IPv6 IrDa IRQ irradiance irradiance gradient irrecoverable error irreducible polynomial irreflexive relation irreversible encryption IS ISA ISAM ISDN ISF ISO ISO-7 ISOC isolation isoline isolux curves isomorphism ISO/OSI reference model isosurface ISP ISR IT ITA-5 Itanium iterated function system iterated map iteration iterative deepening iterative improvement iterative methods ITron ITSEC ITU ITU-T jackknife Jackson method JANET Jarrot’s method Java JavaBean Java Development Kit JavaScript JavaServer Pages Java Virtual Machine JCL JDK jewel box JIT compiler jitter JK flip-flop job job-control language job file job mix job monitoring Jobs, Steve job scheduling job step job stream Johnson counter join operator Josephson junction Josephson technology journal tape Jovial joystick JPEG JSD JSP JTMP jukebox jump jump instruction junction justify Just-in-time compiler JVM K KADS Kalman filter Kamarkar’s method Karnaugh map kB Kbps KBS Kbyte K-complexity k-connectivity KDC KDD Kerberos Kermit kernel kernel field kerning key keyboard keyboard encoder key frame keypad keypunch keyring drive key sorting keyword keyword parameter Kildall, Gary kill file kilo- Kilostream Klatt synthesizer Kleene closure Kleene-plus Kleene star Kleene’s theorem k lookahead kludge KMP algorithm knapsack problem knot knowledge knowledge acquisition knowledge base knowledge-based system knowledge discovery in databases knowledge elicitation knowledge engineering knowledge engineering toolkits knowledge representation Knuth, Donald E.